Posted on 21st Dec 2022
Servo motors are used for a long time in numerous applications. Their size is small but packs a big punch and is highly energy-efficient. These features make them suitable for operating remote-controlled or radio-controlled airplanes, toy cars, and robots. They are also utilized in industrial applications, in-line manufacturing, robotics, food services, and pharmaceutics.
However, how do the servo motors work?
The circuitry of a servo is built exactly inside the motor unit and has a positionable shaft that is generally fitted with a gear. Electric signals control the motor and evaluate the amount of shaft movement.
What is inside the servo motor?
Now take a look under the hood and understand how the servo motor works. Inside there is a very simple set-up that includes a control circuit, small DC motor, and a potentiometer. The motor is fixed by gears for controlling the wheel. With the rotation of the motor, the resistance of the potentiometer varies, so the control circuit can exactly control how much movement there is & in which direction.
When the motor shaft is at the preferred position, the motor power supply is stopped. The preferred position is sent through electrical pulses via the signal wire. The speed of the motor is proportional to the difference between its real position and preferred position. In case the motor is close to the preferred position, it will turn gradually, or else it will turn quickly. This is referred to as proportional control which means the motor will only run as firm as essential to finish the task.
What are the types of Servo Motors?
Servo motors are available in various types, sizes, and shapes. It has three parts such as a motor, control electronics, and feedback device. A servo motor is one part among them. If you require feedback, you can utilize a potentiometer, a tachometer, a Hall-effect device, an encoder, a resolver, a linear transducer, or any other sensor, which matches your needs. The control electronics, which power the motor and evaluate the feedback data and the control reference to ensure the servo motor is operational as it should are the final parts of the servo system.
Servo motors are available in two types such as AC and DC.
AC servos have the capability to handle more current surges and are generally utilized in industrial machines.
DC servos can't handle huge power surges and are generally good for smaller applications. Generally, DC motors are less expensive as compared to their AC counterparts. Both these motors have been built for constant rotation, which makes it easy to move the robot. On the output shaft, there have two ball bearings for reducing friction and making it easier to get to the potentiometer that varies the rest point.
Applications of Servo Motor
Servos are utilized in radio-controlled airplanes for positioning controlling surfaces such as walking a robot, elevators, operating grippers, or rudders.
In the food and pharmaceutical industry, the tools are made to be utilized in harsher environments, where the possibility for corrosion is high because of being washed at elevated pressures and temperatures frequently to keep strict hygiene standards. Servos are even utilized in in-line manufacturing, where elevated repetition yet exact work is necessary.
Certainly, you don't need to know how a servo works for using it, but as with most devices, the more you know, the more effectively you can utilize them.
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